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Maven

Maven Interview Questions and Answers

What is Maven?
Maven is a software project management tool; manage a project's build and automation tool used primarily for Java projects. Maven is developed by Apache Software Foundation. 

Maven is written in Java and Initial release - 13 July 2004, 14 years ago.

Maven addresses two aspects of building software -
1.      Firstly, it describes how software is built.
2.      Secondly, it describes its dependencies.

Maven provides a complete build life-cycle framework. On executing commands, it will look for POM file in Maven. It will run the command on the resources described in the POM.
Maven handles following Activities -
1.      Build
2.      Documentation
3.      Reporting
4.      Dependencies
5.      SCMs
6.      Releases
7.      Distribution
8.      Mailing list

How to Install Maven?
Make sure JDK is installed, and JAVA_HOME variable is added as Windows environment variable and both M2_HOME and MAVEN_HOME variable in the Windows environment, and point it to your Maven folder.

What Is POM?
POM stands for Project Object Model; it is fundamental unit of work, XML file which holds the information of project and configuration details which is used to build a project by Maven.

All your code and resources are placed in the src directory.
1.      The main/Java directory holds your project code
2.      Compiled code is placed in the largest directory
3.      The test/Java directory holds your JUnit test code

What are the Advantages of Maven?
1.      Maven uses convention whereas ant uses Configuration
2.      Maven supports project modularization
3.      Maven supports dependency management and migration
4.      No need to add jar file in each project
5.      Creates right directory structure
6.      Builds and deploys the project

Why Maven is used?
It helps to setup project very quickly and it avoids complicated build files like build.xml.
1.      Gather necessities
2.      Analyses necessities
3.      Design solution
4.      Develop (code) solution
5.      Test solution
6.      Deploy solution
7.      Maintain solution

Why Maven Plugins are used?
Maven plugins are used to -
1.      Create a Jar file
2.      Create War file
3.      Compile Code files
4.      Unit Testing of code
5.      Documenting projects
6.      Reporting

What is Maven Repository?
Maven repository is used as a storage folder or a directory to store your projects, your files such as Jar, War or Ear files.

Three main repositories are -
1.      Local Repository
2.      Central Repository
3.      Remote Repository

 What is Build Lifecycle of Maven?
A Build Lifecycle is a well-defined sequence of phases which define the order in which the goals are to be executed.

What Is three build lifecycle of Maven?
1.      Clean
2.      Default build
3.      Site
How can you build your project offline?
Use the command −
mvn o package

What are the tenets of Maven?
1.      Convention over Configuration
2.      Project oriented and dependency management
3.      Reuse through centralized repositories
4.      Extensible through plugins

How do you know the version of mvn you are using?
Type the following command −
mvn --version

What are the archetype goals?
There are four goals associated with archetype -
1.      Create
2.      Generate
3.      Create-from-project
4.      Crawl

What are Maven Project Types?
1.      War
2.      Jar
3.      Ear
4.      Wildfly
5.      JMS
6.      Android

What is the dependency scope in Maven?
1.      Compile
2.      Provided
3.      Runtime
4.      Test
5.      System

What are the aspects Maven manages?
1.      Documentation
2.      SCMs
3.      Distribution
4.      Builds
5.      Reporting
6.      Releases
7.      Mailing list
8.      Dependencies

What is the command to install JAR file in local repository?
Type the following command −
mvn install

What is SNAPSHOT in Maven?
Maven SNAPSHOT is a special version that indicates a current development copy.

What is the difference between Ant and Maven?
Ant (Another Neat Tool) - is mainly a build tool.
Maven is a software project management tool, framework; manage a project's build and automation tool.

Ant doesn't have a life-cycle but Maven has a life-cycle.

Maven has intelligence about common project tasks but Ant doesn't have.

Ant doesn't have formal conventions but Maven has a convention to place source code, compiled code etc.

Ant is procedural but Maven is declarative.

The ant scripts are not reusable but The Maven plugins are reusable.
Ant and Ivy is a pretty good combination if you want to avoid Maven.

What is the difference between Maven and Gradle?
Gradle as goodness of Ant and Maven put together minus the noise of XML.

Gradle build files are less verbose as they are written in groovy and It provides very nice DSL for writing build tasks.

Gradle has lots of good plugins and vibrant ecosystem.

Maven is a software project management tool, framework; manage a project's build and automation tool. Maven continues to use XML files.
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