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advantages of using Kotlin?

Kotlin Programming Interview Questions and Answers

What Is Kotlin?
Kotlin is easy, open source, statically-typed, Procedural and object oriented programming (OOPs) language which runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and used for server-side development, Android apps, and much more.

Kotlin Programming was developed by JetBrains in 2011. Kotlin compiles to bytecode, so it can perform just as well as Java.

In 2017, Google announced Kotlin is an official language for Android development.
Kotlin works with all existing Java libraries and frameworks and runs with the same level of performance as Java.

Why To Use Kotlin?
1.      Kotlin is quite simple and safe compared to Java
2.      Kotlin is open-source
3.      Supports OOPs object oriented programming
4.      Kotlin compiles to bytecode
5.      Kotlin used for server-side development
6.      Kotlin used for Android apps development also
7.      Kotlin is multi-platform

What are the advantages of using Kotlin?
1.      Its performance is good.
2.      Kotlin is a functional language and based on JVM, so remove lots of boiler plate code.
3.      Kotlin is easy to learn because its syntax is similar to java.
4.      It’s expressive language so make code readable and understandable.
5.      It’s not replacement of java.
6.      It’s an official language of android development.

What are the disadvantages of Kotlin?
Kotlin does not have static modifier that create some problem for some conventional java developers.

Which type of Programming does Kotlin support?
Kotlin supports two types of programming -
1.      Object Oriented programming
2.      Procedural Programming

Why developers can prefer Kotlin over Java?
Kotlin is quite open-source, multi-platform supports, simple and safe as compared to Java.
It can also offer some useful features which are not supported by Java like - Null Safety, lambdas, and operator overloading.

What are the features available in Kotlin but not in Java?
Kotlin contains some addition features that Java doesn’t -
1.      Null Safety - Kotlin handles Null Pointer Exceptions
2.      Kotlin support lambdas, higher order functions, smart casting.
3.      Operator Overloading
4.      Extension Functions
5.      Companion Objects
6.      Range expressions
7.      Data classes
8.      And so on

What are the features of Java has that Kotlin does not?
1.      Primitive types like Int, Boolean and so on
2.      Non-private Fields
3.      Static members
4.      Checked exceptions
5.      Wildcard-types

What is Kotlin’s Null Safety?
Kotlin handles Null Pointer Exceptions and used to eliminate the risk of occurrence of NullPointerException in real-time.

The ways to handle Null Safety -
1.      Checks for a null in conditions
2.      Use Safe Call Operator (?.)
3.      Use Elvis Operator (?:)
Example -
fun main(args: Array){
  // variable is declared as non-null by default
  var str: String = "Hi, Anil!"

  // kotlin prevents you assign a null to a non-nullable variable
  // str=null //assing null to a causes complilation error
  println("str is : $str") 

  // variable is declared as nullable
  var str1: String? = "Hi, Anil!"    
  println("str1 is : $str1")
  str1 = null
  println("str1 is : $str1")

What are the modifiers that are available in Kotlin?
Kotlin’s modifiers -
1.      public
2.      private
3.      protected
4.      interval

What is the extension of Kotlin file?
The Kotlin file extension is - .kt

How to declare variable in Kotlin?
val abc: Char
@Volatile var xyz: Long? = null

Is there Ternary Conditional Operator in Kotlin like in Java?
No! Not available.

What is the difference between var and val?
The value (val) is like a constant whose value cannot be change once assigned while variable (var) value we can change.

What is the entry point to a Kotlin program?
The main() function is the entry point to a Kotlin program.
The Example looks like -
//Main entry point
fun main(args: Array<String>) {
  val user = User(Name="Anil", Age=33, Id=1012)

//print User's function
fun printUser(user: User){

//User's data class
data class User(val Name: String, val Age: Int, val Id: Int);

Can kotlin code be executed without JVM?
Yes!  It compiles Kotlin code into native code which can be executed without Java Virtual Machine (JVM).

What is data class in Kotlin?
This class holds the basic data type. It does not contain any functionality.

What are different Types of Constructors in Kotlin?
Two Types of Constructors in Kotlin -
1.      Primary Constructor - It is part of class header and is declared after class name.
2.      Secondary Constructor -It is declared inside class body and contains more than one secondary constructor.

What are primitive Data Types in kotlin?
Kotlin does not support primitive Data Types like in Java.

List of extension methods Kotlin provides to
1.      readBytes() - it  use for reading contents of file to Byte Array
2.      readText() - it use of reading contents of file to a single String
3.      forEachLine() - It use for reading a file line by line in Kotlin
4.      readLines() - It use to reading lines in file to List
5.      bufferedReader() - It use for reading contents of a file into Buffered Reader

How to compare two strings in Kotlin?
We can compare string using the below operators -
1.      Using “==” operator:
2.      compareTo() extension function

Can you migrate code from java to Kotlin?
Yes! Off course, the JetBrains IDEA provides inbuilt tool.

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