**What Is R?**

The R is an open source programming language and widely
used for statistical computing, graphics, data analytics and scientific
research.

The R programming language is most commonly used for
developing the statistical software and data analysis.

The R programming was created by

**Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka**at the University of Auckland, New Zealand in August 1993; 24 years Ago.
The currently managing and developing all the features
and other related to R - R Development
Core Team and Its popularity is grown recent years.

The R programming supports dynamic typing,
parallel computing and integration with big data technologies.

**What Are the Data Types in R?**

The R programming language has a wide variety of
data types including scalars, vectors (numerical, character, and logical),
matrices, data frames and lists.

The frequently used data types are −

Ã¼ Vectors

Ã¼ Matrices-numeric,
character

Ã¼ Arrays

Ã¼ Data
Frames

Ã¼ Lists

Ã¼ Factors

Ã¼ Useful
Functions

The simplest of these above objects is - Vector Object
and there are six data types of these atomic vectors, also termed as six
classes of vectors. The other R-Objects are built upon the atomic vectors.

**What Are Use of with () and BY () functions in R?**

**The with**() function is used to apply an expression for a given dataset and its looks like –

#with(data,expression)

The

**by**() function is used for applying a function each level of factors and its looks like –
#by(data,factorlist,function)

**Why Use R for Statistical Computing and Graphics?**

Ã¼ R
is open source programming and free!

Ã¼ R
runs on all platforms

Ã¼ R
is most popular and currently increasing its popularity

**How R commands are written?**

By using the “#” at the starting of the line of
code and its looks like “#division” commands is written.

**What Is the use of sample () and subset () functions in R?**

The sample () function is used to generate a
random sample of the size n from a dataset.

The subset () function is used to select the
variables and observations

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